bearish day for Bovespawhich ended the day on Wednesday, January 24, with slight falls in the 0.35%until the 127,815.70 points. He Bovespa reached a maximum of 129,445.69 points and a minimum of 127,679.99 points. The trading range for the Bovespa between its highest and lowest point (maximum-minimum) during this day it stood at the 1.36%.
In the last week, the Bovespa registers a decrease in 0.55%; However, for a year it still maintains a rise of 13.89%. He Bovespa is located a 3.78% below its maximum of this year (132,834 points) and a 0.96% above its minimum price of the current year (126,602 points).
A stock index is an indicator that measures the evolution of the value of a certain set of assetsfor which it collects data from different companies or sectors in a part of the market.
These indicators are mainly used by the countries’ stock exchanges and each of them can be integrated by firms with certain characteristics such as having a similar market capitalization or belonging to the same type of industry. In addition, there are some indices that only consider a handful of shares to determine their value or others that consider hundreds of shares.
Stock market indices serve as indicator of stock market confidence, business confidence, health of the national and global economy, and stock investment performance and shares of an entity. Generally, if investors lack confidence, stock values tend to fall.
Likewise, they function to measure the performance of an asset manager and allow investors to make a comparison between return and risk; measure the opportunities of a financial asset or create portfolios.
This type of indicators began to be used at the end of the 19th century after the journalist Charles H. Dow. carefully analyzed how company shares tended to rise or fall in price together, so he created two indices: one that contained the 20 most important railway companies (as it was the most important industry at the time), as well as 12 shares of other types of businesses
Currently there are various indices and They can congregate based on their geographical location, sectors, company size or also the type of assetFor example, the US Nasdaq index is made up of the 100 largest companies mostly related to technology such as Apple (AAPL), Microsoft (MSFT), Amazon (AMZN), Facebook (FB), Alphabet (GOOG), Tesla (TSLA ), Nvidia (NVDA), PayPal (PYPL), Comcast (CMCSA), Adobe (ADBE).
Each stock index has its own way of being measured, but the main factor is the market capitalization of each firm that comprises it. This is obtained by multiplying the daily value of the bond in the corresponding stock market by the total number of shares that are in circulation in the market.
Companies listed on the stock exchange are required to present a balance of its composition. Said report must come to light every three or six months, as the case may be.
Reading a stock index also requires taking into account its changes over time. New indices always start with a fixed value based on security prices on your start date, but not everyone follows this method. Therefore, it can be misleading.
If one index sees an increase of 500 points in one day, while another only adds 20, it might appear that the first one performed better. But, if the first started the day at 30,000 points and the other at 300, it can be assumed that, in percentage terms, the gains for the second were considerable.
Between the main stock indices in the American Union There is the Dow Jones Industrial Average, better known as Dow Jones, of which 30 companies are part. Also, the S&P 500, which comprises 500 of the largest companies on the New York Stock Exchange. Finally comes the Nasdaq 100which unites 100 of the largest non-financial firms.
On the other hand, the most notable indices of Europe are the Eurostoxx 50, which covers the 50 most important companies in the eurozone. On the other hand, the DAX 30, the main German index that contains the most prominent companies on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange; the FTSE 100 from the London Stock Exchange; he CAC 40 from the Paris Stock Exchange; and the IBEX 35from the Spanish stock market.
In the asian continentthe main stock indices are the Nikkei 225, made up of the 225 largest companies on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. There is also the SSE Composite Index, which can be considered the preponderant one in China, made up of the most relevant companies on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. Likewise, it is worth mentioning the Hang Seung Index in Hong Kong and KOSPI in South Korea.
Talking about the latin american regionyou have the CPIwhich contains the 35 most powerful firms on the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV). At least a third of them are part of the estate of tycoon Carlos Slim.
Another is the Bovespa, made up of the 50 most important companies on the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange; he Merval from Argentina; he IPSA From Chile; he MSCI COLCAP from Colombia; he IBC of Caracas, made up of 6 companies from Venezuela.
Likewise, there are other types of global stock indices such as the MSCI Latin Americawhich includes the 137 most important companies in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
Likewise, there is the MSCI World, which includes 1,600 companies from 23 developed countries; he MSCI Emerging Markets, made up of more than 800 companies from developing countries; and the S&P Global 100made up of the 100 most powerful multinational firms on the entire planet.